In Fajr, delaying is Mustahhab (Preferred). Meaning when there is good light then start the Namaz. Also Mustahhab time is that you can pray approx. forty to sixty verses of the Quran in a clear and distinct manner (tarteel), and after performing Salaam there is enough time left that if there was a fault you could repeat your Wuzu and pray the Namaz again with forty or sixty verses in a clear and concise manner. To delay so much that there is doubt that the sun will rise is Makrooh disliked) [Qazi Khan etc.]. Rule: For women it is always Mustahhab to pray Fajr at the beginning time and the rest of the Namaz's prayed after the Jamaat of the males has completed. Rule: In winter, early Zohr is Mustahhab. In the warm weather it is Mustahhab to pray the Namaz late, whether it is prayed alone or with Jamaat. However, in the warm weather, if the Jamaat of Zohr is early, you are not allowed to miss it for the Mustahhab time. The season of autumn is in the same rule as winter, and the season of spring is in the same rule as summer [Radd-ul-Mohtar, Alamgiri]. Rule: The Mustahhab time of .Jum'a is the same as the Mustahhab time of Zohar [Hijr]. Rule: It is Mustahhab to delay the Asr Namaz, but not too much that the rays of the sun go deep red and that without any difficulty you could look directly at the sun, the sun shining is not a form of deep redness [Alamgiri, Radd-ul-Mohtar, etc.]. Rule: It is better that you pray Zohr in the first half of it's time and Asr in the second half of it's time [Guniya]. Rule: From study it is apparent that the sun goes deep red twenty minutes before sunset and also it stays red twenty minutes after sun rise, which is the out of Namaz time [Fatawa-e-Razvia, Bahar-e-Shariat]. Rule: The clarification of delay is that the time allocated for a particular Namaz is split into two and then the Namaz is prayed in the second half. Rule: Except for the days when there is cloud, it is always Mustahhab to start Maghrib quickly, and if the time is delayed for more than the length of two rakats then it is Makrooh-e-Tanzihi. Also, if without cause i.e. travelling, illness etc. if the time is delayed so that the stars can be seen clearly, then this is Makrooh-e-Tahrimi [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Alamgiri, Fatawa-e-Razvia].
Rule: It is Mustahhab for Isha Namaz to be delayed for the first third part of the time. It is allowed to be prayed after the first half of the time, meaning you prayed the Farz rakats just before the first half ended, and if delayed that the night had dropped (meaning after the first half) then this it is Makrooh as it would mean missing Jamaat (congregation) [Hijr, Durr-e-Mukhtar, Khaniya]. Rule: It is Makrooh to sleep before praying the Isha Namaz.
Rule: After the Isha prayer it is Makrooh to talk about worldly things, to tell or listen to stories or fables. It is not Makrooh to talk about important issues, to pray the Quran, or recite Allah's name, or talk about religious regulations, stories of pious people and to talk with guests. Also, from the break of dawn upto sunrise all types of conversation except to recite the name of Allah is Makrooh [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Radd-ul-Mohtar]
. Rule: If a person is confident in waking up then they should pray the Witr Namaz in the last part of the night just before sleeping and then if they wake up in the last part of the night they should pray Tahajjud, they cannot pray Witr again [Qazi Khan]. Rule: During dull and cloudy days it is Mustahhab to pray the Asr and Isha Namaz early and Mustahhab to delay the other Namaz's.
Rule: Sun rising means from the edge of the sun has come out until all the sun has risen and the eye sparkles when directly looked at, and this is a total time of twenty minutes. Rule: Midday (Nisfun Nihar) means starting from exact mid sun until the sun drops. Rule: The way of finding the exact time of Nisfun Nihar (midday) is to find out what day today the break of dawn started and what time the sun set. Split this into two halves and as soon as the first half ends this is the time of midday until the sun starts dropping from this position. For example, say today the 20th March the sun sets at 6pm and also risen at 6am, then the afternoon started at 12pm, and in the morning at 4.30am the dawn broke.
Therefore a total of thirteen and a half hours have occurred between the break of dawn until sun set and so half of it would be six and three quarter hours. The time therefore of Nisfun Nihar would be quarter past eleven and the sun would drop at 12pm, and hence a total of three quarters of one hour would be the total time when any Namaz would not be allowed.
Notice: The above calculation is a mere example and therefore the time would differ according to the city and country and the season. Different destinations and different times show that the approximate time would be twenty minutes and in all places the above method of calculation should be used. Rule: If a funeral (Janaza) is brought at the three prohibited times there is no harm in praying the Namaz. It is not allowed to be prayed when all the funeral is ready beforehand and the time is delayed until the prohibited times start [Alamgiri, Radd-ul-Mohtar]. Rule: During these three prohibited times it is better if you do not pray the Holy Quran, it is better to recite the name of Allah or pray the Durood Sharif continuously [Alamgiri].
If the time of Farz is very short, then all Nafl and Sunnats including those of Fajr and Zohr are Makrooh. Whatever aspect that makes the heart distract and you can relieve yourself from that aspect then all Namaz are Makrooh until you relieve yourself, for example, urination or excretion or to release wind, then these must be performed otherwise the Namaz will be Makrooh. However, if the time is going to finish, then pray the Namaz and repeat it afterwards. Also if food is presented in front of you and you have the desire to eat, or any other aspect that you may have a desire for without which you will not be able to gain satisfaction, then it is necessary to fulfil this desire before praying Namaz otherwise the Namaz will be Makrooh [Durr-e-Mukhtar, etc.]. Rule: The whole of the time of Fajr and Zohr is okay from the start to the end, meaning these Namaz can be prayed at any point within the time and is not Makrooh [Bararaiq, Bahar-e-Shariat].