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After ensuring that your belief and faith is correct, the biggest obligation of all obligations is Namaz. There has been many messages in the Quran and Hadith in relation to the importance of Namaz. Whoever does not believe it as an Obligatory aspect i.e. Farz is a Kafir. and those who do not pray it are great sinners and will be thrown into hell in the after life, also in the event of an Islamic leadership, the king should execute those who do not pray Namaz.
Rule: At what age should children be taught Namaz ?
When a child reaches the age of seven he should be shown how to pray Namaz. When the child reaches the age of ten. they should be made to pray via use of beatings. Before we show you the way in which Namaz should be prayed, we will first of all show you the six conditions/qualifiers that must be performed, otherwise the Namaz will not begin. These are known as the 'Shara'it-e-Namaz and are as follows;
2)The covering of the body
6)The call to start Namaz (Takbeer-e-Tahrima)
The first qualification is cleanliness. This means that the person praying Namaz (which will now be referred to as Namazee) must have their body, clothing and the place where Namaz is going to be performed, clean from impurities such as urine, stools, blood, alcohol. dung, animal excretion, etc. Also the Namazee must not be without bathing or ablution.
The second qualification is covering of the body. This means that the male's body must be covered from the navel upto and including the knees. The female's body must be completely covered except for the face, the hands below and including the wrists and feet below and including the ankles.
The third qualification is time. This means that whatever time is allocated to a particular Namaz, that Namaz is prayed. For example, the Fajr Namaz is prayed from the break of dawn to before sunrise. Zohar Namaz is prayed after midday to the time when there are two shadows to everything except for the original shadow (mid afternoon). Asr Namaz is prayed from when there are two shadows until sunset. Maghrib Namaz is prayed after sunset to when the natural light disappears. Isha Namaz is prayed after the natural light has disappeared until before the break of dawn.
The fourth qualification is the facing towards Qibla. This means to face towards the Holy Ka'aba (in Makkah).
The fifth qualification is intention. This means that whatever Namaz is being prayed for whatever time i.e. Ada, Qaza. Farz, Sunnat,Nafl etc. to make a firm intention in the heart for that Namaz.
The sixth qualification is Takbeer-e-Tahrima. This means to say Allah-o-Akbar and start the Namaz. This is the last qualification and once said the Namaz begins. If you then say something to someone or eat something or drink something or perform any action which is against Namaz then the Namaz will break. The first five qualifications must remain from when the Takbeer-e-Tahrima is said, to until the Namaz is completed, otherwise the Namaz will not count.
SECOND QUALIFICATION ON NAMAZ - SATRE-AURAT - COVERING OF THE BODY
It is compulsory to cover the body, meaning how much of the body in Namaz should be covered at least.
Rule: For males, from below the naval to below the knees is compulsory, that it is covered, it is not compulsory to cover the naval, but the knees must be covered.
Rule: For women who are not slaves nor have any restriction of Shariat on them, it is compulsory for them to cover all their body except the face, hands upto the wrists and feet upto the ankles. It is also compulsory for women to cover the hair hanging from their heads, their necks and their collars (throats).
Rule: If a woman has worn a very thin veil over her head that the hair's shininess can be seen then the Namaz will not count.
Rule: For a female servant/slave the whole of the stomach, back, both sides and from the navel to the knees is all aurat (parts that need covering).
Rule: In all the parts that are compulsory to cover if one part was uncovered and was less than a quarter, then the Namaz will count. If it is a quarter in size and is recovered immediately, then the Namaz will count. If the part was uncovered for one 'Rukun' meaning the time you could say Subhanallah three times or was uncovered deliberately and whether it was covered again immediately, the Namaz will not count.
Parts of Aurat in a Male
Rule: There are nine parts of the body which are aurat for a male.
The right hip
The left hip
The right thigh (upto and including the knee)
The left thigh (upto and including the knee)
From below the naval upto the male organ and upto both sides of the body inclusive.
The area between the testicles upto the posterior is a single aurat.
The aurats that have been counted above are all one part each, meaning if less than a quarter of each part became uncovered, the Namaz would count.
Rule: If some parts of the aurats became uncovered but were all less than a quarter, however, when added together the size would be more than a quarter of the smallest part that has been uncovered, then the Namaz will not count. For example, if a ninth of a thigh was uncovered, a ninth of hip and a ninth of a penis was uncovered then the size added together is more than a quarter of the penis, the Namaz will not count [Alamgiri, Radd-ul-Mohtar].
Rule: At the start of the Namaz if one quarter of a part is left uncovered and you say Allah-o-Akbar, the Namaz will not start [Radd-ul-Mohtar].
Aurat parts for a woman
Rule: For women who are not slaves, except for the five parts mentioned above (face, both hands upto the wrists and both feet upto the ankles) all the body is aurat. This is split into thirty parts of the body. The same rule applies in Namaz (as mentioned above) if a quarter became uncovered for each part.
The head, meaning from the top of the head upto the start of the neck.
The hair that hangs down
The right ear
The left ear
The neck (and throat)
The right shoulder
The left shoulder
The top right arm including the elbow
The top left arm including the elbow
The bottom right arm (below the elbow upto and including the wrist)
The bottom left arm (below the elbow upto and including the wrist)
The chest, below the neck/throat to the breasts
Back of the right hand
Back of the left hand
The right breast
The left breast
The stomach, meaning from below the breasts upto and including the navel
The upper back, meaning the other side of the chest
Both armpits upto the lower back
The right hip
The left hip
The right thigh upto and including the knees, the knee is not a separate part but is included
The left thigh upto and including the knees, the knee is not a separate part but is included
Below the naval upto the start of the pubic hair and the lower back, is all one aurat.
The right shin, from below the knee upto and including the ankle
The left shin, from below the knee upto and including the ankle.
The right base of the foot
The left base of the foot
Many Ulema have not included the back of the hands and the base of the feet as Aurat.
Rule: Although the woman's face is not an Aurat, it is still forbidden to expose it to non permissible males (those a woman is not restricted to marry). Also it is forbidden for non permissible males to look at their face.
Rule: If a male does not have clothing that is allowed, i.e. he only has silk to cover his body, then it is obligatory for him to cover his body with the silk cloth and can pray Namaz with it on, however, if a male has other material available then it is Haram for a male to wear silk, and if a Namaz is prayed with silk on, then it will become Makrooh-e-Tahrimi.
Rule: If a naked person can obtain access to a table or floor cloth, then they must cover themselves with this and pray Namaz, and also if they can use leaves or straw to cover themselves, then they must do this [Alamgiri].
Rule: If someone has no clothes or material, then they should pray Namaz seated and perform Rukoo and prostration (Sijdah) by actions [Hidaya, Durr-e-Mukhtar, Radd-ul-Mohtar].
Rule: If another person has material or clothing and the naked person feels sure that the person will lend it to them, then it is necessary to ask for the material [Radd-ul-Mohtar].
Rule: If you only have impure clothes and there is no way of cleaning them, then pray with the impure clothes, do not pray naked [Hidaya].
Rule: If there isn't enough clothing to cover the whole of the body but you can only cover some parts, then it is necessary that you do this and cover the private parts (vagina and posterior) first. And if there is only enough to cover one private part, then cover one of the two.
Rule: If by praying Namaz whilst standing, one quarter of an aurat becomes uncovered, then pray Namaz whilst seated [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Radd-ul-Mohtar].